Content: „Physics of the Electric Guitar“ – with links to the chapters of the book (PDF)

We are in the process of translating the book "Physics of the Electric Guitar" (Physik der Elektrogitarre) into English language. The content listing below indicates the already translated chapters with a double entry - the respective second entry is a direct link to the translated chapter.

Please note: in the PDF-version a (relatively small) number of figures and passages is excluded. The complete text including all figures is available only in the printed hard-copy edition (German language).

Physics of the Electric Guitar (Vol 1)

  1. Getting into the mood (Satire)

0.1 Barking up the wrong tree

0.2 Signature guitars

0.3 Strings and the orcus (cf. Schiller)

0.4 Unamplified E-guitars

0.5 Noehle-Gluehstrumpf

 

  1. The fundamentals of string oscillations

1.1 Transversal waves

1.2 Wound strings

1.3 Inharmonic partials

1.3.1 Dispersion in the time domain

1.3.2 Dispersion in the frequency domain

1.4 Longitudinal waves / dilatational waves

1.5 Plucking a string

1.5.1 De-convolution of dispersion

1.5.2 Plectrum influence

1.5.3 String bounce

1.5.4 String rattle

1.6 The decay of string oscillations

1.6.1 Plane string oscillations

1.6.2 Spatial string oscillations

1.6.3 Partial level and summation level

1.6.4 Worn out strings

1.7 String lifetime

 

  1. The string as a waveguide

2.1 Transversal waves

2.2 Image waves as a model for reflection

2.3 Standing waves

2.4 Transient phenomena

2.5 Reflection

2.5.1 Reflection factor

2.5.2 A resonator as string bearing

2.6 Internal dissipations

2.7 Dispersive bending waves

2.8 The generalized waveguide model

2.8.1 Ideal string, bridge pickup

2.8.2 String with singlecoil pickup

2.8.3 String with humbucking pickup

2.8.4 Dispersive waveguide components

2.9 Magnetic pickup with dilatational waves

 

  1. String magnetics

3.1 Steel, nickel, bronze

3.2 String loudness

3.3 Magnetic string parameter

3.3.1 Measurements with a string loop

3.3.2 The magnetic skin effect

3.3.3 Measurements with a yoke

 

  1. The electromagnetic field (translated by Wolfgang Hönlein, proofread by Andrew Graham) poteg-4-magnetics

4.1 Fundamentals of magnetostatics poteg-4-1-basics-of-magnetostatics

4.2 The magnetic potentials poteg-4-2-magnetic-potentials

4.3 Matter in the magnetic field poteg-4-3-matter-in-magnetic-fields

4.3.1 Soft magnetic materials- 4.3.2 Hard magnetic materials - 4.3.3 Nonmagnetic materials PotEG-4.3.1-3-Magnetic Materials

4.4 Pickup magnets poteg-4-4-pickup-magnets

4.4.1 Alnico magnets poteg-4-4-1-alnico-magnets

4.4.1.1 Alnico-III and Alnico-I

4.4.1.2 Alnico-II

4.4.1.5 Alnico-V

4.4.1.6 Additional Alnico materials

4.4.1.7 Comparison of Alnico materials

4.4.2 Cunife magnets poteg-4-4-2-cunife-magnets

4.4.3 Ceramic magnets poteg-4-4-3-ceramic-magnets

4.5 Magnetic aging poteg-4-5-magnet-aging

4.6 The magnetic circuit poteg-4-6-magnet-circuit

4.7 Representation of magnetic fields poteg-4-7-1-field-representation-flux

4.7.1 Magnetic field strength and flux density

4.7.2 Magnetic potentials poteg-4-7-2-3-potentials-fields

4.7.3 Spatial fields

4.8 Field geometry inside materials poteg-4-8-distribution-in-materials

4.9 Mathematic field theory poteg-4-9-field-theory

4.10 Magnetodynamics poteg-4-10-magnetodynamics-induction-inductance

4.10.1 Magnetic voltage induction

4.10.2 Self induction, inductivity

4.10.3 Permeability poteg-4-10-3-permeability

4.10.4 Magnetic losses, magnetic skin effect poteg-4-10-4-magnetic-losses

4.11 Magnetic field forces poteg-4-11-magnetic-field-forces

4.11.1 Maxwell force poteg-4-11-1-maxwell-force

4.11.2 Field related pitch modulations poteg-4-11-2-field-induced-pitch-deviations

4.11.3 Field related level modulations poteg-4-11-3-field-induced-amplitude-deviations

4.11.4 Field related dissipations poteg-4-11-4-field-induced-damping

4.11.5 Indirect sound effects poteg-4-11-5-indirect-effects-on-sound

4.11.6 Coulomb force poteg-4-11-6-coulomb-7-lorentz-force

4.11.7 Lorentz force

4.12 Magnetic figures of merit (table) poteg-4-12-magnetic-quantities-and-units

 

  1. Magnetic pickups (translated by Tilmann Zwicker)

5.1 Singlecoil pickups PotEG 5.1 Single-Coil PUs

5.2 Humbucking pickups PotEG 5.2 Humbucking PUs

5.3 Coaxial singlecoil pickups PotEG 5.3 Hum-compensated SC PUs

5.4 The pickup's magneticfield PotEG 5.4.1 Static magnetic field

5.4.1 The static field without string

5.4.2 The static field with string PotEG 5.4.2 Static magnetic field with string

5.4.3 The alternating magnetic field PotEG 5.4.3 Alternating magnetic field

5.4.4 Magnetic window (aperture) PotEG 5.4.4 Aperture

5.4.5 Absolute pickup sensitivity PotEG 5.4.5 Pickup Sensitivity

5.4.6 Staggered and beveled polepieces PotEG 5.4.6 Staggered & beveled polepieces

5.4.7 Fender Jaguar and Lace PotEG 5.4.7 Fender - Jaguar & Lace

5,4,8 DeArmond Pickups PotEG 5.4.8 DeArmond PUs

5.5 Basic pickup parameters

5.5.1 DC resistance PotEG 5.5.1 DC Resistance

5.5.2 Coil inductance PotEG 5.5.2 Coil inductance & capacity

5.5.3 Coil capacity

5.5.4 Resonance quality, Q-factor PotEG 5.5.4 Resonance Q-factor

5.5.5 Polarity PotEG 5.5.5 PU polarity

5.5.6 Time variance PotEG 5.5.6 PU time variance

5.5.7 Wire coating, wax PotEG 5.5.7 & 8 Insulating varnish, wax and bobbin

5.5.8 Flatware

5.5.9 Absolute sensitivity, loudness PotEG 5.5.9 Loudness & DC resistance

5.6 Pickup measurement devices PotEG 5.6 Instrumentation for PU-measurements

5.7 Hum sensitivity PotEG 5.7 Sensitivity to hum

5.8 Nonlinear distortion PotEG 5.8 Non-linear PU distortion

5.9 Equivalent networks PotEG 5.9 Equivalent circuits

5.9.1 Models and analogies

5.9.2 Impedance models

5.9.2.1 Singlecoils with low eddy current losses

5.9.2.2 Eddy currents in the nonmagnetic conductor

5.9.2.3 Equivalent two-pole networks

5.9.2.4 Eddy currents in the magnetic conductor

5.9.2.5 Singlecoils with high eddy current losses

5.9.2.6 Gibson-Humbucker: screw-coil

5.9.2.7 Gibson-Humbucker: plug-coil

5.9.2.8 Gibson-Humbucker: coupling of the coils

5.9.3 Equivalent transmission networks

5.9.4 Connected pickups

5.10 Analysis of the transfer behavior PotEG 5.10 Transfer behavior

5.10.1 Measurements with a shaker

5.10.2 Measurements with a Helmholtz coil

5.10.3 Measurements with a coaxial coil

5.10.4 Measurements with a tripole coil

5.10.5 Measurements with a laser-vibrometer

5.10.6 Measurement accuracy

5.10.7 Finite Element Modeling

5.11 Directional characteristic of pickups PotEG 5.11 Directionality

5.11.1 String polarization

5.11.2 Wave polarization

5.12 Pickup noise PotEG 5.12 Noise

5.13 Pickup microphonics PotEG 5.13 Microphonics

5.14 Pickups with shorted turns PotEG 5.14 Shorts in the winding

5.15 Database PotEG 5.15 Data collection

5.16 Patents and Inventions PotEG 5.16 Inventions and discoveries

 

  1. Piezoelectric pickups

6.1 The piezoelectric process

6.2 Electric loading

6.3 The piezo pickup as a sensor

6.4 Reciprocity

6.5 The piezo pickup as an actuator

6.6 The disassembled pickup

6.7 Pickup noise

6.8 Piezo pickup vs. microphone

6.9 Microphonics

6.10 Differences compared to magnetic pickups

6.A Supplement: Piezoelectric state equations

 

  1. Neck and body

7.1 The guitar neck

7.2 The frets

7.2.1 Fret positions

7.2.3 Fret materials

7.2.3 The Buzz-Feiten-system

7.3 Neck and string geometry

7.3.1 Head and neck angle

7.3.2 String trees

7.4 String dynamics

7.4.1 Playing forces

7.4.2 Bearing forces

7.5 Reflection and absorption at the bridge/nut

7.5.1 Reflection and absorption parameter

7.5.2 Reflection analysis

7.5.3 The mechanical bridge impedance

7.5.4 Measurement results

7.6 Vibration measurement techniques

7.6.1 Impedance / admittance measurements

7.6.2 The spectrum of decaying tones (Volagramm)

7.6.3 The decay time T30

7.7 Absorption of string oscillations

7.7.1 Radiation absorption

7.7.2 Internal dissipation

7.7.3 Winding attenuation of wound strings

7.7.4 Bearing absorption

7.7.4.1 Coupling of transversal waves

7.7.4.2 Absorption of longitudinal waves

7.7.4.3 Residual absorption

7.7.4.4 Bearing conductance

7.7.5 Finger-, hand- and capodaster-attenuation

7.7.6 String aging

7.7.7 Flatwound strings

7.8 "Specialized" literature

7.8.1 The fairytales of the primary tone

7.8.2 "Stratone"

7.8.3 BS-Journalists

7.9 Does the body wood affect the tone?

7.10 Special bridge constructions

7.10.1 Simple models

7.10.2 Bridges without vibrato (Gibson / Fender)

7.10.3 Bridges with vibrato (Fender / Bigsby / Rickenbacker)

7.11 Solid vs. semisolid body

7.12 Vibration – soundwaves – sound

7.12.1 Linear string oscillations

7.12.2 Nonlinear string oscillations

7.12.3 The causes of timbre

7.12.4 So what?

7.13 Neck curvature and fret/string distance ("action")

7.14 Damping reduction

 

Physics of the Electric Guitar (Vol 2)

  1. Psychoacoustics

8.1 Tone systems

8.1.1 Das Pythagorean tone system

8.1.2 Just intonation

8.1.3 Tempered intonation

8.1.4 Equal tempered intervals

8.1.5 Typical guitar mistuning

8.1.6 The stretched intonation

8.2 Frequency and pitch

8.2.1 Frequency measurement

8.2.2 Frequency and pitch accuracy

8.2.3 Pitch detection

8.2.4 Grouping of partials

8.2.5 Inharmonicity of partials

8.3 The character of keys

8.4 Consonance and dissonance

8.5 Timing and rhythm

8.6 Loudness and timbre

8.7 Listening tests

8.7.1 Psychometry

8.7.2 The un-amplified electric guitar

8.7.3 Tactile sensations

 

  1. Guitar Circuits (translated by Tilmann Zwicker)

9.1 Potentiometers PotEG 9.1 Potentiometers

9.2 Tone-Caps PotEG 9.2 Tone caps

9.3 Pickup cables PotEG 9.3 PU connecting wires

9.4 Guitar cables PotEG 9.4 Guitar cables

9.5 Metal sheets PotEG 9.5 Mounting plates

 

  1. Guitar amplifiers (in the process of being translated by Tilmann Zwicker, 10.1 - 10.5 & 10.8 - 10.11 already done)

10.1 The input stage poteg-10-01-preamplifier

10.1.1 The input tube poteg-10-01-01-preamplifier-tube

10.1.2 The tube's input resistance poteg-10-01-02-tube-input-impedance

10.1.3 Triode charts poteg-10-01-03-characteristic-curves

10.1.4 Nonlinearities, distortion poteg-10-01-04-nonlinearity-distortion

10.1.5 Cutoff frequencies poteg-10-01-05-frequency-limits

10.1.6 Time variances poteg-10-01-06-time-variance

10.1.7 Noise, hum, microphonics poteg-10-01-07-noise-hum-microphonics

10.1.8 Noise processes poteg-10-01-08-noise-processes

10.1.9 Pentodes in the input stage poteg-10-01-09-pentode-preamp

10.2 The second stage poteg-10-02-intermediate-amplifier

10.2.1 Cathode-basis-circuit poteg-10-02-1-common-cathode-circuit

10.2.2 Cathode follower poteg-10-02-2-cathode-follower-circuit

10.2.3 The mixing stage poteg-10-02-3-mixing-stage

10.3 The filter section (Tone Stack) poteg-10-03-tone-controls

10.3.1 Bass-Middle-Treble poteg-10-03-1-tone-stack-bass-middle-treble

10.3.2 Equalizer poteg-10-03-2-equalizers

10.3.3 Presence-Control poteg-10-03-3-presence-control

10.4 Phase reversal (Phase Splitter) poteg-10-04-phase-splitter-driver

10.4.1 Paraphase poteg-10-04-1-paraphase-driver

10.4.2 Cathodyne poteg-10-04-2-split-load-driver

10.4.3 Difference amplifier poteg-10-04-3-differental-amp-long-tail-driver

10.4.4 Halfewave antimetry poteg-10-04-4-half-wave-anti-symmetry

10.5 The power stage poteg-10-05-0-power-stage

10.5.1 Class-A, tetrode, pentode poteg-10-05-1-class-a-single-ended

10.5.2 Class-A push pull poteg-10-05-2-class-a-push-pull

10.5.3 Class-B poteg-10-05-3-class-b-push-pull

10.5.4 Class-AB, class-D poteg-10-05-4-class-ab-push-pull

10.5.5 The impedance paradox poteg-10-05-5-impedance-paradox

10.5.6 Negative feedback poteg-10-05-6-negative-feedback

10.5.7 The source resistance of the power stage poteg-10-05-7-output-impedance

10.5.8 Biasing the power stage poteg-10-05-8-bias

10.5.9 Stress and aging poteg-10-05-9-tube-strain-&-aging

10.5.10 The magic sound of a 6L6 poteg-10-05-10-6l6-sound

10.5.11 Match Point poteg-10-05-11-matching

10.5.11.1 Selecting, matching (and leg pulling)

10.5.11.2 Tube testing

10.5.12 Selected tube circuits VOX, Marshall, Fender poteg-10-05-12-vox-marshall-fender

10.5.13 Comparing analysis: Power tubes poteg-10-05-13-tube-comparison

10.5.14 Pentode / triode / ultralinear poteg-10-05-14-triode-pentode-ul

10.5.15 A word of caution poteg-10-05-15-current-flows

10.6 The output transformer

10.6.1 The linear model

10.6.2 Impedance matching

10.6.3 Winding capacitance

10.6.4 The nonlinear model

10.6.5 Comparing analyses

10.7 Power supply

10.7.1 Heating circuit

10.7.2 Filter capacitor

10.7.3 The internal resistance

10.7.4 Rectifier tubes

10.7.5 The smoothing filter

10.7.6 The mains transformer

10.8 Effects

10.8.1 Reverb poteg-10-08-01-reverb

10.8.2 Vibrato / Tremolo poteg-10-08-02-tremolo-vibrato

10.8.3 Phaser / Flanger / Chorus poteg-10-08-03-phaser-flanger-chorus

10.8.4 Wah-wah-pedal poteg-10-08-04-wah

10.8.5 Distortion devices poteg-10-08-05-distortion-devices
10.8.5.1 Diodes poteg-10-08-05-1-diodes

10.8.5.2 Transistors poteg-10-08-05-2-transistors

10.8.5.3 Range Master (Dallas Arbiter) poteg-10-08-05-3-range-master

10.8.5.4 Tube-Screamer (Ibanez) poteg-10-08-05-4-tube-screamer

10.8.5.5 Fuzz-Face (Dallas Arbiter) poteg-10-08-05-5-fuzz-face

10.8.5.6 Roaring semiconductors poteg-10-08-05-6-the-roaring-transistor

10.9 Operational behavior

10.8.1 Tube-sound vs. transistor-sound poteg-10-09-1-tube-vs-transistor-sound

10.8.2 Tube-Watt vs. transistor-Watt poteg-10-09-2-tube-watts-vs-transistors-watts

10.8.3 Coupling capacitors poteg-10-09-3-coupling-capacitors

10.8.4 Sound event vs. listening event poteg-10-09-4-sound-event-vs-auditory-event

10.10 Comparative analyses

10.10.1 ... for they knew what they did? poteg-10-10-1-comparative-analyses

10.10.2 Stage topology poteg-10-10-2-topology

10.10.3 Headroom charts poteg-10-10-3-headroom-chart

10.10.4 Comparison of nonlinear distortions poteg-10-10-4-distortion-comparison

10.10.5 Audibility of nonlinear distortion poteg-10-10-5-distortion-audibility

10.10.6 Comparison of Frequency responses poteg-10-10-6-frequency-responses

10.10.7 Comparison of VOX, Fender & Marshall poteg-10-10-7-vox-fender-marshall

10.10.8 Modeling amps poteg-10-10-8-modeling-amps

10.11 Tube data

10.11.1 Nomenclature poteg-10-11-1-tube-data-nomenclature

10.11.2 Triodes poteg-10-11-2-double-triodes

10.11.3 Power tubes poteg-10-11-3-power-tubes

10.11.4 Tube parameters poteg-10-11-4-tube-parameters

 

  1. Guitar loudspeakers

11.1 Construction and function

11.2 Electrical two-pole characteristic

11.3 Frequency response

11.4 Directional characteristic

11.5 Efficiency and maximum sound pressure

11.6 Nonlinear distortions

11.7 Alnico- vs. ferrite magnet

11.8 Loudspeaker cabinets

11.8.1 Basics

11.8.2 Comparison of cabinet materials

11.9 Beamblockers and Diffusors

11.10 Horn loudspeaker

11.11 Studio monitors

11.12 Loudspeaker cables

11.A Supplement: Measurement techniques

11.A.1 Measuring microphones

11.A.2 Reverberation time

 

Supplement: Vibration and waves

A.1 Oscillations vs. waves

A.1.1 Forced oscillations

A.1.2 Free oscillations

A.1.3 Forced waves

A.1.4 Free waves

A.1.5 Standing waves

A.2 Longitudinal waves

A.2.1 Pure longitudinal waves

A.2.2 Dilatational waves in strings

A.3 Transversal waves

A.3.1 Pure transversal waves

A.3.2 Transversal waves in strings

A.4 Bending waves

A.4.1 Bars under zero tension, pure bending waves

A.4.2 Vibrations of a stiff string

A.4.3 Eigenmodes of bending waves

A.5 Wave resistance

A.6 Stiffness

A.7 Impulses

A.8 The Ultimate end: cryo…

 

References

Glossary

 

Animations (see www.gitec-forum.de, no download possible)